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          experience of a patient undergoing radiation treat-  Academic Integrity
          ment. This system allows students to :                Distance learning, simulated laboratories, and the
                ƒ enhance decision-making skills             use of in-person and online hybrid programs in the
                ƒ identify internal structures of the patient  radiologic sciences raises concerns for academic integ-
                ƒ practice clinical skills in a safe environment with-  rity and assessment of student learning. Students and
               out pressure before entering clinical rotations  faculty do not interact directly in distance learning
                ƒ reduce real-world linear accelerator time required   instruction, which can allow for an increase in academic
               for training                                  dishonesty.  Academic dishonesty comes in many forms
                ƒ visualize the dose to structures           such as students hiring other individuals to take exams
                                                             for them, copying and sharing test questions, or using
          Group Discussions                                  the internet during exams. 6
            Small or large group discussions are an effective way   The JRCERT Standards require distance learning
          for students to engage with one other, the instructor,   courses to have processes in place that ensure the stu-
          and with the material. In distance education, online   dents who register in the course are the same students
          meeting platforms have become a useful tool for group   that participate in, complete, and receive credit for the
          discussions. Students can be divided into small groups   course.  Programs can verify the identity of students
          to work together to better understand difficult con-  by using secure logins, passcodes, proctored exams, or
          cepts. Once small group sessions have concluded, each   video monitoring. 3,7
          group can share findings with the class, providing addi-  Proctoring programs, such as LockDown Browser
          tional opportunities for further discussion. Thought   (Respondus Inc), use web cameras and require students
          provoking questions can be posed by the instructor to   to log in through a website that restricts the background
          further encourage student interaction and collaboration   usage of websites.  These programs aid in limiting the
          in the learning process.                           ability of students to commit academic dishonesty.
                                                             LockDown Browser restricts students’ access to the
          Flipped Classroom                                  internet to review information that could assist them
            The flipped classroom method promotes active     when taking an exam or completing an assessment.
          student-initiated learning. Instructional materials   However, this program does not place restrictions on
          are provided before the facilitated classroom time in   students reviewing their notes or textbooks. Although
          various forms including written handouts, recorded-  a shorter time limit can be implemented when com-
          lectures, textbook readings, educational videos, and   pleting quizzes or exams to limit academic dishonesty,
          reading assignments. All resources are available for stu-  students might still find methods with which to use
          dents to learn course content at their own pace and can   outside sources in a dishonest manner. Requiring a web
          be reviewed as often as needed to comprehend subject   camera and implementing a strict login procedure can
          content. Didactic instructional time can then be used   be employed to assist with academic integrity in the
          to solve problems, analyze and synthesize information,   distance education setting. Some proctoring programs
          and evaluate learning. Lectures also can be used to   use web cameras to allow faculty to verify the identity
          reinforce learning or to address knowledge gaps that are   of the student that completed the exam or assignment.   7
          apparent from assessment activities. The advantage of   Academic integrity and confidentiality are maintained
          this method is that faculty are available to students for   because the information is accessible only to the fac-
          clarification and reinforcement during the application   ulty member and student who submitted the work.
          of the learned content. This strategy can be used dur-  LockDown Browser requires the use of a web camera,
          ing distance learning by having students complete the   and students are proctored electronically when com-
          outside-class components during their own time and   pleting exams. Instructors can set up the parameters
          attend a virtual classroom environment composed of   for examination protocols directly through the online
          in-class activities.                               learning system they are using for the course.

          RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, May/June 2021, Volume 92, Number 5                                       525
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