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          The type of information they provide includes :    communication skills.  Role-playing allows the focus
                ƒ aftercare                                  to be on the learner; although this focus might cause
                ƒ compliance                                 anxiety for some students, it is a good method to assess
                ƒ how to obtain results                      interpersonal skills. In role-reversal, the student acts
                ƒ reassurance                                as the patient, which helps teach empathy toward the
                ƒ self-introduction                          patient.  For example, a role-playing scenario might
                ƒ type of examination                        include a 75-year-old patient who has an order for an
                ƒ what to expect during the examination      upper gastrointestinal examination. The patient is
          Most of the complaints from patients in radiology are   weak, hard of hearing, and has intermittent bouts of
          related to the lack of patient-centered care and poor   emesis. One student would role-play as the patient and
          interpersonal skills of radiology staff members. 15,16  another as the technologist while simulating the exami-
            Radiology patients consider wait times as part of   nation. The instructor would monitor the effectiveness
          their experience. The longer patients must wait for   of the student’s communication to include empathetic
          their examination, the higher their anxiety, frustration,   phrasing and geriatric considerations.
          and dissatisfaction. 15,17  Wait times can increase as the   Another important communication skill is interpro-
          volume of imaging examinations performed in a center   fessional communication. The radiologic technologist
          or hospital increases. The pressures associated with the   speaks with many other health care professionals
          radiographer’s job to decrease wait times by maximizing     (eg, radiologists, nurses, surgeons, physicians). The
          efficiency, might foster an attitude to rush patients out   communication tool SBAR (Situation, Background,
          the door.  The emphasis on the speed of the exami-  Assessment, and Recommendation) has been shown
          nation is associated with prioritizing wait times over   to improve health care communication by providing
          patient-centered care, with maximum efficiency as    concise information.  Use of SBAR during role-playing
          the primary focus. 19                              scenarios has shown to be effective.  Although there
            The balance between producing a quality image    is little research related to using SBAR in radiology,
          promptly while still providing an excellent patient    incorporating it into scenarios can be beneficial in
          experience is unique to radiology. Success is predicated   developing interprofessional communication. The
          on the radiologic technologist’s actions. If a radiologic   components of SBAR are:
          technologist can effectively communicate, the patient     ƒ situation – What is going on with the patient?
          will have confidence in the technologist and in the      ƒ background – What are the clinical facts?
          accuracy of the imaging results. 20                      ƒ assessment – What is the assessment of  the situation?
                                                                   ƒ recommendation – How should the situation
          Teaching Communication                                  be handled?
            Transferring the didactic theory learned in the    During the scenario, once the examination is complete,
          classroom to clinics is a crucial step in the development   the student portraying the technologist should use
          of health care students. Communication theory for   SBAR to provide instructions to the patient’s nurse
          most health care programs is taught in the preclinical   after the examination, for example:
          years.  However, lectures and reading are passive forms     ƒ situation – The patient is being returned after an
          of learning that require the student to absorb information.   upper gastrointestinal fluoroscopy examination
          Learning by doing is a more productive method. The      that involved drinking barium.
          challenge for health care educators is to allow students     ƒ background – While in radiology, the patient
          to practice without placing a patient’s care in jeopardy.  vomited during and after the examination.
                                                                   ƒ assessment – The patient is having abdominal
          Role-Play                                               pain and continues to feel nauseous.
            Role-playing commonly is used in health care           ƒ recommendation – Monitor the patient for con-
          programs and is an effective method for learning        tinued bouts of emesis.

          Reprinted with permission from the American Society of Radiologic Technologists for educational purposes. ©2022. All rights reserved.
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